But Peter later described the defeat as a blessing in disguise that compelled him to work even harder. The essence of Alexei's personality is a certain spiritual Epicureanismmanifested in an optimistic Christian faith, in a profound, but unfanatical, attachment to the traditions and ritual of the Church, in a desire to see everyone round him happy and at peace, and in a highly developed capacity to extract a quiet and mellow enjoyment from all things.
Pincus argues that this revolution was the first modern revolution, it was violent, popular and he rejects older theories to the effect that it was an aristocratic coup or a Dutch invasion. However Alexei and the king of Sweden quarrelled over the apportionment of the spoils, and at the end of Maywith encouragement by the Habsburg emperor and the other enemies of Sweden, Alexei declared war on Sweden.
Yet he was a curious and energetic young man. The most serious were the musketeer revolt ofthe Astrakhan revolt ofand the rebellion led by the Don Cossack Ivan Bulavin in — But these reforms in the Church angered not only the Orthodox but also the Old Believers,3 and of both there were between the elite.
Soviet historians generally took a bipolar view of Peter's reign.
Moreover, the merchants and the nobility fight over economical privileges: He was especially fascinated by shipyards and factories. Peter the Great and the West: She bore him thirteen children five sons and eight daughters in twenty-one years of marriage, and died only weeks after her thirteenth childbirth.
During the twelfth century the Anglo-Norman architectural style became more ornate, with pointed arches derived from France, as Henry II he consolidated his holdings and acquired nominal control of Wales and Ireland.
Peter soon began to ignore his wife, and in he relegated her to a convent.
Wars of succession are also often referred to as a civil war, when in fact it was a conflict within the royalty, or broader aristocracy, that civilians were dragged into,  and may therefore be a misnomer, or at least a misleading characterisation. State peasants were increasingly requisitioned to work on major projects.
Abroad he frequently offended his hosts with his appalling manners, while Western visitors to Russia were perplexed by his court, which featured dwarfs, giants, and human "monsters" from his Cabinet of Curiositiescompulsory drinking sessions, which armed guards prevented guests prevented from leaving, and weird ceremonies staged by the "All-Mad, All-Jesting, All-Drunken Assembly," which, headed by the Prince-Pope, parodied religious rituals.
The Little Ice Age had a significant impact on agriculture and living conditions, economic growth began to falter at the end of the thirteenth century, owing to a combination of overpopulation, land shortages and depleted soils. For the artillery, obsolete cannons were replaced with new mortars and guns designed by Russian specialists or even by Peter himself he drew up projects of his own for multicannon warships, fortresses, and ordnance.
Peter never declared an heir and was succeeded by his widow, Catherine I. Turmoil reigned as the principal parties, Sophia, Peter, the boyars, and the Streltsy all vied for power. Ironically, Peter often behaved in a manner that confirmed foreign prejudices that Russia was a barbaric country.
Peter I, disguised as a carpenter while traveling in western Europe — In order to provide armaments and to build his navy Russia had virtually no warships at allmetallurgical and manufacturing industries on a grand scale had to be created; and Peter devoted himself tirelessly to meeting these needs.
The Table was intended to encourage the existing nobility to perform more efficiently, while endorsing the concept of nobles as natural leaders of society: Peter, meanwhile, had formed a lasting liaison with a low-born woman, the future empress Catherine Iwho bore him other children and whom he married in The war ended in victory for the Parliamentarians, after this conflict, the line of Stuart monarchs was temporarily displaced by the Commonwealth of England.
A man of original and shrewd intellect, exuberant, courageous, industrious, and iron-willed, he could soberly appraise complex and changeable situations so as to uphold consistently the general interests of Russia and his own particular designs.
Thanks to the reforms, the economic activity and the population of the towns increased.between Poland and Russia that had their beginning with the death of Ivan IV (the Terrible) in and continued through a prolonged dispute over the Russian throne.
The truce placed Smolensk, as well as other conquered western Russian territories, in Poland’s possession. Peter's other half-brother, Ivan V of Russia, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind.
Consequently, the Boyar Duma (a council of Russian By the summer ofPeter, Lawrence Jay. ed. Russia in the era of Peter the Great (), excerpts from primary and secondary sources two week borrowing; Successor: Catherine I. A war of succession or succession war is a war prompted by a succession crisis in which two or more individuals claim the right of successor to a deceased or deposed monarch.
The rivals are typically supported by factions within the royal court. The Emancipation Reform of in Russia was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia.
The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by Russian peasants. Feodor III of Russia – Feodor III Alexeyevich of Russia was the Tsar of all Russia between and Feodor was born in Moscow, the eldest surviving son of Tsar Alexis, inat the age of fifteen, he succeeded his father on the throne.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from to by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war.Download